Restrain - Torture - Execute While such practices may seem barbaric in our modern day "civilized" society, in medieval times brutal devices of restraint, cruel tortures, and unimaginable methods of execution were used to both punish and also to send strong messages of deterrence. With over 100 photos and illustrations and drawing on his own impressive personal collection, author Steve Santini separates fact from fiction as he explores these sinister devices and how they fuctioned within the dark framework of medieval justice. About the Author: Steve Santini has researched and collected ancient restraints as well as instruments of torture and execution for over 25 years. His research into these curious devices themselves led him to study the periods of history in which they existed as well as the laws, customs, and even superstitions that led to their construction and governed their use. In time and over the course of many years Santini came to assemble one of the finest private collections of such rare antiquities in Canada, and arguably, in North America. The objects featured in his collection were culled from many far flung corners of the globe which Santini has personally visited during his ongoing research and fact finding missions. He is a several times published author and has written an illustrated guidebook on historical restraints titled, "Devices of Human Restraint." Steve Santini has also worked with numerous private collectors, leading auction houses, and international museums on the research and attribution of both ancient restraints as well as instruments of torture and execution. Two such museums of note Santini has assisted and consulted with are, The Medieval Kriminal Justice Museum in Rothenburg ob der Tauber in Germany and The National Museum of Crime and Punishment in Washington, D. C. where over 60 artifacts from Santini's personal collection are currently on long term loan and public display.